Structural principle of ballpoint pen

- Dec 16, 2019-

Ballpoint pen, also known as bic. It is a writing instrument that has been popular in the world for decades. It has the advantages of simple structure, convenient carrying, lubricating writing, and suitable for copying. Therefore, people from all walks of life, from school students to office clerks, are willing to use it. Ballpoint pens are pens that use tiny rotating balls made of brass, steel, or tungsten carbide to release ink onto paper while writing. Ballpoint pens are very different from their predecessors-reed pens, feather pens, metal-tip pens and fountain pens.


I. Principle and structure of ballpoint pen

The writing principle of the ball-point pen is mainly to use the ball to directly contact the paper surface during writing to generate friction, so that the ball rolls in the ball seat, and brings out the ink or ink in the pen core to achieve the purpose of writing.


Ballpoint pen is a pen that uses ink with different pigments. The nib is a small steel ball. The small steel ball is embedded in a small cylindrical copper bowl, and then connected to a plastic tube containing ink. The ink flows down from the surroundings as the steel ball rotates.


The pigment of the ballpoint pen ink is a dye. Ink colors are mainly blue, red and black. Among them, blue ink is the most used. In the past, the pigment components in blue ink were base-based royal blue and base-based green lotus, and the solvents were oxidized castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Because the base dyes are not lightfast (lightfastness is only 1st to 2nd grades), they are not heat-resistant, and they are not resistant to acids and alkalis, so they have poor durability and have been eliminated. The "424" blue ballpoint pen and "322" black ballpoint pen currently on the market have better durability of handwriting.


Reports of scented ballpoint pens being toxic are common. The volatile organic compounds contained in inferior scented stationery are toxic and harmful to the human body. event


Classification of ballpoint pens


There are many types of ballpoint pens with different styles, and there are different grades of high, medium, and low in terms of quality, but from the perspective of categories, they can basically be divided into oily ballpoint pens and water-based ballpoint pens.


1. Oil-based ball-point pen Most of the pen balls used are made of stainless steel or hard alloy material. The size of the ball diameter determines the thickness of the handwriting lines. There are three common ball diameters: 1 mm, 0.7 mm, and 0.5 mm (the body or ballpoint pen core of the product often indicates). Ballpoint pen ink is specially made, which is mainly made by mixing colorant, solvent and viscosity modifier. Common colors are blue, black and red. Ordinary inks are mostly used for general writing, and special inks are mostly used for archival writing. Ink for archival writing is generally marked with a refill. For domestic refills, the word DA is marked.


Oil-based ball-point pens are the first generation of ball-point pens. They have been on the market for more than 60 years. After long-term improvement, the oily ballpoint pen has mature production technology, stable product performance, long shelf life, and stable writing performance. It has become a traditional product in ballpoint pen products. The oily ballpoint pen has a high viscosity, so the writing feel is relatively heavy. .


2. Water-based ball-point pen, also known as a ball-point pen or a ball-point pen. The ballpoint pen holder and pen cover are made of plastic injection molding called full plastic ballpoint pen; the pen cover is made of stainless steel by punching and grinding is called semi-steel ballpoint pen; The all-plastic type is basically a one-time use, that is, it is discarded when the ink is used up; most of the semi-steel type and all-steel type use replaceable pen core structure. The ballpoint of the ballpoint pen is divided into two types: cannonball type and needle tube shape, which are made of copper alloy, stainless steel or engineering plastic. Balls are mostly made of stainless steel, hard alloy or alumina. The diameter of the ball with medium writing is 0.7 mm, and the diameter of the ball with fine writing is 0.5 mm. There are two types of water storage: fiber bundle storage and non-fiber bundle storage. The color of the ink includes red, blue, black, and green. The ball-point pen has the characteristics of both a pen and an oil-based ball-point pen, and it is an ideal writing tool with smooth and smooth writing and uniform lines.


In addition to the above classifications, it is also common to classify by ink color and pen structure:


1. Divided by the color of the ink: ⑴ Monochrome ballpoint pen: This is the most common ballpoint pen, often blue, black, red and so on. ⑵ Two-color ball-point pen: Generally it is red and blue. (3) Three-color ball-point pens: red, blue and black. ⑷ Four-color ballpoint pens: red, blue, black, and green. In addition to these four, there are six-color, eight-color, and even twelve-color ballpoint pens.


2. Divide by structure: ⑴ Disposable ball-point pen, the pen holder is the pen core, neither ink can be added, or the pen core cannot be changed. When the ink is used up, it can only be discarded.的 A ballpoint pen that can be refilled, with buttons, springs, locks, and reset functions. ⑶ The pen can be rotated to make the pen core extend or retract.新型 New ball-point pen with ball-point pen and pen combination, ball-point pen and pencil combination, ball-point pen and electric pen combination, ball-point pen and tiny light bulb combination, etc.


3. Common sense of using ballpoint pen


① Ball closing process: Ballpoint pen tip consists of ball and ball seat. When explaining, indicate that this is a ball, here is a tee, and there are five grooves in the ink channel. The ball is placed on the tee, the tee is closed, and the ball is wrapped, so that the ball does not fall out, and the pen processing is completed.


② Ballpoint pen writing principle: The ball can rotate freely in the tee. The ballpoint pen's ink flows through the five grooves in the ball seat to the ball. When the pen is writing, the friction force drives the ball to rotate, so that the ink flowing to the ball is continuously transferred to the writing.


③ The reason for the ball-point pen's oil leakage When the ball-point pen is writing, part of the ink is transferred from the ball to the writing. Please see that the ball turns white after being transferred. A good pen tip, as the ball rotates, the ink is brought back to the tee more thoroughly. The ink sticks to the outside of the tee less, and it is cleaner. For the bad pen tip, most of the ink will stick to the outside of the tee and cannot be brought back into the tee, which is what we call the oil bleed phenomenon. It is easy to contaminate the writing when writing. The ball-point pen needs to be fluent to get more ink, but the negative effect is to drop more ink. If less to drop, the disadvantage is not fluent. These two situations are a contradiction. How to comprehensively consider to achieve the best results is a topic that the ball-point pen manufacturing industry has been studying. The "Platinum" brand ball-point pen is not only underestimated for its smooth writing, but does not pollute the writing, and has a long service life, which is well received by users.


④ Injury caused by the ballpoint pen tip falling to the ground. If the ballpoint pen touches the ground at 90 degrees, the ballpoint pen tip will not be damaged. However, if the neck is injured, it will cause "oil leaking" at this gap. In severe cases, , The ball will fall off, writing difficulties and other phenomena.


⑤ Correct writing angle of ball-point pen (55 ° ~ 70 °) When writing with ball-point pen, it is best to control the angle between 55 ° and 70 °. At this time, only the ball is in contact with the paper (ball is very hard ... tungsten carbide or Ceramic, it is not easy to wear), and the crotch does not touch the writing, thereby ensuring that the ball-point pen can extend its service life in a good writing state.


⑥ If the writing angle is too small, the neck of the ball is easy to wear (the ball is made of nickel-platinum copper or stainless steel, which is much easier to wear than the ball). If the ball is in contact with the object for a long time, even if the object is paper, the ball is also worn. Can't withstand abrasion, which will cause the balls to fall off.


时 When writing, the pad is too thick, and the tip of the pen touches the paper, which is easy to wear and remove beads. Suggestions: 0.4 balls cannot be duplicated; 0.5 balls can be duplicated at most, not more; 0.7 balls can be duplicated at most 3 It should be no more than 4 sheets. It is best to write at 75 ° when copying.


How to clean ballpoint pen oil


If you accidentally draw ballpoint pen marks on your clothes, washing them with various detergents has no effect, but there is a secret weapon against it: perfume. Apply perfume to the ballpoint pen marks. After a while, the ballpoint pen marks disappear. No trace.


Toothpaste can remove the stains on the surface of the refrigerator. It also has a special ability to remove the traces of ballpoint pens on clothes. Just soak the clothes in cold water for a while, and then evenly apply a layer of toothpaste on the stained areas, and then Then apply some soap, and then gently rub the part of the clothes, the stain will gradually disappear.


Boiled milk can also be used to remove stains. Just put a clean towel under the clothes stained with ballpoint pens, and dipped a bit of boiled milk with a ball of clean cotton, and repeat the ballpoint pens. Wipe until the stain disappears completely.


White vinegar is also a good helper to remove ballpoint pen marks. May wish to first apply the laundry detergent to the stained area of the clothes, use a soft brush to dip a little white vinegar solution diluted with water, and repeatedly brush the stained part of the clothes, and then gently rub the clothes. These stains can be removed.

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